REPORT OF MEASLES OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION IN DAN MANAU COMMUNITY OF BAKURA LGA, ZAMFARA STATE, NORTHWEST NIGERIA
Background: Measles is a disease that belongs to the RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family paramyxoviridae, and its infection accounts for many deaths particularly in children.
Objective: The study’s aim to establish the existence of the measles outbreak at Dan Manau village in Bakura LGA, Zamfara State.
Methods: Both descriptive and analytical studies were used in the outbreak investigation. In the descriptive analysis a 2-tiered standard case definition (suspected and confirmed) were used: Suspected case: any person with fever and rash or any person in whom a clinician suspects measles Confirmed case: A suspected measles case that has serological confirmation test of recent measles virus infection using measles IgM antibodies ELISA method and had not received measles vaccination in the 30 days preceding the specimen collection.
Result: A total of 169 cases and 34 deaths were reported with Case Fertility Rate (CFR) of 20.1%. Male shows a high prevalence of 100 (59.1%) than female 69(40.9%). Most of the cases were less than 3 years old. The majority (85%) of the cases were < 5years old. It was also noted that (68%) of the cases were 0-36months old. Nevertheless, the age groups most affected were 13-24 months (26%). The occurrence of the cases peaked at week 10 with smaller peaks at weeks 6, 14, 16 and 19 respectively. Blood samples from 5valunteer suspected cases were analyzed using Enzymes Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Serological tests of the above samples were conducted at the WHO accredited laboratory in Kaduna State reveal 3 positive IgM out 5 with a prevalence of 3(60%) Vaccination with one dose of measles vaccine was lower among the positive cases 38(39%) than the Negative cases 68(68%). Although the odd of this association was less than 1, it was statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Measles outbreak is still a common occurrence during the hot session in most communities with poor utilization of routine immunization services. The impact on the community morbidity and mortality rates is high due to some factors like delay in reporting, inadequate local response capacity, weak surveillance system, and weak laboratory services.
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